Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni has signed a bill into law criminalising HIV transmission.
Campaigners warn it will undermine efforts to fight HIV in the country by making it harder for people to access treatment.
The exact date of presidential assent is not known.
BuzzFeed reports a copy of the signed legislation obtained by health activists is dated 31 July, but in Uganda government papers are frequently back-dated, meaning it is possible that President Museveni only signed the law in the past few days.
The law imposes a fine and a ten-year prison sentence for “intentional transmission of HIV” and five years for “attempted transmission of HIV.”
The legislation also allows for some compulsory testing and would enable courts to order the release of individuals’ HIV status without consent.
Approved by Mr Museveni in February this year, the law called for repeat offenders of homosexuality to be sentenced to 14 years in prison and made it a criminal offence not to report someone for being gay.