An inauguration speech is the set piece of the American system of government.
The new President, surrounded by the House, the Senate, military leaders, diplomats and watched by hundreds of millions of people on television, sets the tone for his administration.
Some are better than others.
President John F Kennedy only lived long enough to deliver one inaurugal speech, but it is regarded as the best since Lincoln.
Jimmy Carter used his speech to appeal for national unity, and paid tribute to the man he beat, Gerald Ford, for his efforts to heal America after Watergate.
Great speeches are expected from a new Presidents, such as Obama and Lincoln, who came from relative obscurity to the White House on the back of their oratorical skills.
Barack Obama has not been shy of stressing his similarities with Lincoln. Both laywers from Illinois, both taking control at a critical time for the country.
He took a symbolic train ride from Pennsylvania to Washington at the weekend, mirroring Lincoln’s journey into the capital.
“A New Birth Of Freedom” is the title of Obama’s inauguration address – a quote from Lincoln’s famous Gettysburg Address.
2009 is the two hundreth anniversary of Lincoln’s birth.
Last week the President-elect took his children to the Lincoln Memorial, and he chose it as the site of the first inauguration celebration on Sunday.
Today, the 44th President will take the oath of office on the same Bible that the 16th used in his first inauguration in 1861.
When Lincoln addressed the nation after taking the oath of office for the second time, in 1865, the country was near to victory in the civil war.
His speech, which is carved into the Lincoln Memorial, is regarded as one of the best inauguration addresses in American history. Barack Obama has reportedly been re-reading it ahead of his own moment of victory.
At this second appearing to take the oath of the Presidential office there is less occasion for an extended address than there was at the first.
Then a statement somewhat in detail of a course to be pursued seemed fitting and proper.
Now, at the expiration of four years, during which public declarations have been constantly called forth on every point and phase of the great contest which still absorbs the attention and engrosses the energies of the nation, little that is new could be presented.
The progress of our arms, upon which all else chiefly depends, is as well known to the public as to myself, and it is, I trust, reasonably satisfactory and encouraging to all. With high hope for the future, no prediction in regard to it is ventured.
On the occasion corresponding to this four years ago all thoughts were anxiously directed to an impending civil war.
All dreaded it, all sought to avert it.
While the inaugural address was being delivered from this place, devoted altogether to saving the Union without war, insurgent agents were in the city seeking to destroy it without war—seeking to dissolve the Union and divide effects by negotiation.
Both parties deprecated war, but one of them would make war rather than let the nation survive, and the other would accept war rather than let it perish. And the war came.
One-eighth of the whole population were colored slaves, not distributed generally over the Union, but localized in the southern part of it. These slaves constituted a peculiar and powerful interest. All knew that this interest was somehow the cause of the war.
To strengthen, perpetuate, and extend this interest was the object for which the insurgents would rend the Union even by war, while the Government claimed no right to do more than to restrict the territorial enlargement of it.
Neither party expected for the war the magnitude or the duration which it has already attained. Neither anticipated that the cause of the conflict might cease with or even before the conflict itself should cease.
Each looked for an easier triumph, and a result less fundamental and astounding. Both read the same Bible and pray to the same God, and each invokes His aid against the other.
It may seem strange that any men should dare to ask a just God’s assistance in wringing their bread from the sweat of other men’s faces, but let us judge not, that we be not judged. The prayers of both could not be answered. That of neither has been answered fully.
The Almighty has His own purposes. ‘Woe unto the world because of offenses; for it must needs be that offenses come, but woe to that man by whom the offense cometh.’
If we shall suppose that American slavery is one of those offenses which, in the providence of God, must needs come, but which, having continued through His appointed time, He now wills to remove, and that He gives to both North and South this terrible war as the woe due to those by whom the offense came, shall we discern therein any departure from those divine attributes which the believers in a living God always ascribe to Him?
Fondly do we hope, fervently do we pray, that this mighty scourge of war may speedily pass away. Yet, if God wills that it continue until all the wealth piled by the bondsman’s two hundred and fifty years of unrequited toil shall be sunk, and until every drop of blood drawn with the lash shall be paid by another drawn with the sword, as was said three thousand years ago, so still it must be said ‘the judgments of the Lord are true and righteous altogether’.
With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation’s wounds; to care for him who shall have borne the battle, and for his widow, and his orphan – to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace, among ourselves, and with all nations.